Istituto Lombardo - Accademia di Scienze e Lettere - Rendiconti di Lettere http://www.ilasl.org/index.php/Lettere Rendiconti di Lettere PAGEPress Scientific Publications, Pavia, Italy it-IT Istituto Lombardo - Accademia di Scienze e Lettere - Rendiconti di Lettere 2384-9150 UN’IPOTESI SU DI UN PERSONAGGIO DI SAMUEL BECKETT http://www.ilasl.org/index.php/Lettere/article/view/675 <p>In the drama by Samuel Beckett En attendant Godot the real protagonist is never on the stage, he is simply the long-awaited one who never arrives: it is not even known if he really exists or if he is only a fantasy of those who on the stage converse about nothing waiting for who they know will never come. It has been much debated on the name Godot: reference to God suggesting various meanings, reference to real personages met by Beckett and much more. Here it is hypothesized a possible link with a character of Honoré de Balzac, a Godeau, he himself an absentee recalled who finally, without appearing on the stage, arrives as deus ex machina and rescues the protagonist from a difficult situation. Perhaps a metaphor for the contrast between the providential optimism of the nineteenth century and the scepticism of the twentieth century.</p> Amedeo Bellini ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-08 2020-07-08 10.4081/let.2019.675 LA RIVOLUZIONE DELLA VIRTÙ. CONSIDERAZIONI SU LETTERATURA E POLITICA NEL TARDO ILLUMINISMO TEDESCO http://www.ilasl.org/index.php/Lettere/article/view/674 <p>In this paper, I set out to analyse issues of civic virtue in the context of revolution, chiefly focusing on German Late Enlightenment. As my starting-point, I take Thomas Mann’s observations on political virtue, trying to reconstruct the intellectual genealogy of the values he claims to be upholding. In the ensuing sections I therefore discuss Johann Gottfried Herder’s and Friedrich Gentz’s take on political virtue in the aftermath of the French Revolution. The coalescence of ‘virtue and terror’ provides the fil rouge of my enquiry.</p> Guglielmo Gabbiadini ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-08 2020-07-08 10.4081/let.2019.674 LA POLONIA DI OGGI E LA SHOAH: LA LEGGE E LA STORIA http://www.ilasl.org/index.php/Lettere/article/view/682 <p>Last year’s relations between the Polish and Israeli leaderships, with the controversy over the influences (or perhaps interference) of the Warsaw government on the treatment of the historical memory of the Holocaust and its international implications, lead us to make two important considerations. Firstly, the possible consequences that the so-called “Holocaust law” can bring to historical research; Furthermore, a reflection on the negative effects that an improper use of the law can cause on the social and administrative level, trying to compare the cases of today’s Poland and of the General Government, that is the section of the Polish state occupied by the Nazis not annexed, but transformed into a very peculiar territorial entity.</p> Emiliano Vitti ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-20 2020-07-20 10.4081/let.2019.682 QUANDO FINÌ IL COLONIALISMO ITALIANO? TRE DECOLONIZZAZIONI A CONFRONTO http://www.ilasl.org/index.php/Lettere/article/view/683 <p>The end of Italian colonialism cannot simply be limited to Italy’s military defeat during the Second World War and the consequent loss of colonial possessions. In actuality, the Republic of Italy clamored for the restitution of the former colonies until the rejection of the Bevin-Sforza Compromise at the U.N. General Assembly in 1949. It is therefore justifiable to point out the reality of an Italian colonialism during the Republican era, with its specific characteristics, which was the premise of the decolonization processes for Libya, Eritrea and Somalia. This note takes into consideration the specificity of these three paths of decolonization with reference to the Italian transition from a renewed colonial policy to a real postcolonial one.</p> Antonio M. Morone ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-20 2020-07-20 10.4081/let.2019.683 OSSERVAZIONI COMPARATIVE SULLA SCRITTURA EPISTOLARE DI BELLINI E DI VERDI http://www.ilasl.org/index.php/Lettere/article/view/677 <p>In this note the author analyses the language of Bellini’s and Verdi’s letters, with a special reference to the poets of their operas.</p> Ilaria Bonomi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-13 2020-07-13 10.4081/let.2019.677 <em>CORRECTIONES</em> MANZONIANE: DAL <em>TRIONFO DELLA LIBERTÀ</em> ALL’ULTIMA POESIA http://www.ilasl.org/index.php/Lettere/article/view/673 <p>Before his conversion, Manzoni is an author of few works, almost all unpublished, which already earned him the fame of a poet. The longest of these works is the <em>Trionfo della Libertà</em>. In this poem we can find ideological values and writingstyles that will act for a long time in Manzoni’s mind, who in later works will resume and correcting (id est, converting) them, producing a significant feedback effect on the importance to be assigned to the <em>Trionfo della Libertà</em> itself.</p> Pierantonio Frare ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-08 2020-07-08 10.4081/let.2019.673 ATTUALITÀ IN TEMA DI MUTUI BANCARI, IN UNA PROSPETTIVA EUROPEA http://www.ilasl.org/index.php/Lettere/article/view/678 <p>La note concerne le problème juridique de la “subrogation” du prêteur dans les droits d’un créancier précédent de l’emprunteur, et examine les raisons qui ont porté le groupe de travail de l’Académie des Privatistes Européens à aborder ce problème dans le projet du “code européen des contrats”.</p> Giuseppe Gandolfi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-14 2020-07-14 10.4081/let.2019.678 LA PRIMA AMBASCIATA ETIOPICA IN OCCIDENTE (1315 CA.) SVELATA DA UN CRONISTA MILANESE http://www.ilasl.org/index.php/Lettere/article/view/672 <p>A passage from the unpublished <em>Cronica universalis</em> by the Milanese Dominican Galvano Fiamma (d. c. 1345) contains news about the expedition carried out in 1291 by two Genoese ships, which was intended to reach India by the Atlantic route. Until now, this expedition was known only from the <em>Annales Ianuenses</em>; according this text, the commanders of the expedition were the Vivaldi brothers, although in Galvano’s account the name of the admiral is Ubertus of Savignone. Galvano’s source is a lost <em>libellus</em> written by a Genoese priest, Giovanni da Carignano, who said he got information about the sailors’ fate from an embassy that came from Ethiopia around 1315: the ambassadors told that the Genoese had arrived in their land, but had given up returning home because of the difficulties of the journey. Galvano’s new witness anticipates by a century the first known contacts between Ethiopia and Western Europe in the middle ages.</p> Paolo Chiesa ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-08 2020-07-08 10.4081/let.2019.672 L’INFERENZA STATISTICA SECONDO BAYES, FISHER E NEYMAN-PEARSON http://www.ilasl.org/index.php/Lettere/article/view/679 <p>In the literature about procedures of statistical inference, which – on the basis of a random sample – allow to accept a precise hypothesis concerning the probability distribution which yields the sample, there are many proposals. One of the oldest is the one by T. Bayes (1763): starting from a given distribution for the parameter of a random variable, this same distribution is revised conditionally on the sample results. Instead, R. Fisher’s proposal is based only on the sample information: a given hypothesis is rejected only if the sample results are scarcely coherent with such hypothesis. The third proposal, made by J. Neyman and E. Pearson, takes into explicit consideration also an alternative hypothesis, and leads to the acceptance of the hypothesis more akin to the sample results.</p> Vittorio B. Frosini ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-14 2020-07-14 10.4081/let.2019.679 «LA COGNIZIONE DEL DOLORE» DI CARLO EMILIO GADDA: IL «ROMANZO FAMILIARE» DI UNA VITA http://www.ilasl.org/index.php/Lettere/article/view/685 <p>This essay aims at analysing <em>La cognizione del dolore</em> as a “family novel” which was continued by Carlo Emilio Gadda for nearly all his life. A key element of this investigation is the notion of “complexity” which Gadda acquired during his university studies in the field of philosophy and which is present in his poetics and many aspects of his literary output. Such a notion exerts a strong influence on the obsessively recurring themes as well as the manifold formal and narrative techniques which are constantly hybrid and based on combinatorial mechanisms.</p> Clelia Martignoni ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-20 2020-07-20 10.4081/let.2019.685 UN’ANALISI ISTITUZIONALE DEL DECLINO DELL’ECONOMIA ITALIANA http://www.ilasl.org/index.php/Lettere/article/view/671 <p>This paper attempts an interpretation of Italy’s recent economic decline, which began two decades before the Great Recession. It argues that its deeper roots lie&nbsp;in the political economy of growth. This interpretation is illustrated through a discussion of Italy’s recent growth trajectory and of its politico-economic equilibrium. The emphasis is placed on the country’s convergence to the productivity frontier and TFP performance, and on the evolution of its social order and institutions. The lens through which this case is reviewed, to illuminate the origins and evolution of the current constraints to growth, is drawn from institutional economics and Schumpeterian growth theory. It is exemplified by analysing two alternative reactions to the insufficient provision of public goods: an opportunistic one—employing tax evasion, corruption, or clientelism as means to appropriate private goods—and one based on enforcing political accountability. From the perspective of ordinary citizens and firms such social dilemmas can typically be modelled as coordination games, which have multiple equilibria. Self-interested rationality can thus lead to a spiral, in which several mutually reinforcing vicious circles lead society onto an inefficient equilibrium characterized by low political accountability and weak rule of law.</p> Andrea Capussela ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-08 2020-07-08 10.4081/let.2019.671 PROGETTO DI ISTITUZIONE DI DISTRETTI CULTURALI EUROPEI. IL DISTRETTO CULTURALE GOMOSAICO DI GORIZIA http://www.ilasl.org/index.php/Lettere/article/view/670 <p>It is here presented the hypothesis of establishing European cultural districts. Its purpose is to systematically valorize the cultural heritage of their territories end their people. The proposal is innovative with contribution to economic and civil life. A cultural district with Gorizia as capital is given as significant exemple. Its importance is that it originates from the tradition of ancient Aquileia and that is meeting point between three very important ethnic groups: Latin, German, Slavic. It is a district of symbolic value also for the enhancement of the strategic axis for Europa “Mitteleuropa-Mediterranean”.</p> Giulio M. Chiodi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-08 2020-07-08 10.4081/let.2019.670 L’INTERPRETAZIONE DEL MONDO ANTICO IN <em>DE L'ORIGINE DES LOIX, DES ARTS, ET DES SCIENCES; ET DE LEURS PROGRÈS CHEZ LES ANCIENS PEUPLES</em> (1758) DI ANTOINE-YVES GOGUET E LE FORME DELLA SUA RICEZIONE NEL SETTECENTO TEDESCO http://www.ilasl.org/index.php/Lettere/article/view/669 <p>This essay presents the ways in which a crucial transition has been made the object of erudite reasoning. This transition concerns the passage from a vision of universal history based on chronological and historical calculation, as attested in Francesco Bianchini’s (1662-1729) <em>Istoria Universale</em> (1697), aimed at confirming the historical truth of the Holy Scriptures and reconstructing the events of humankind in a global time and space, towards a historical-philosophical analysis, focused on the progress and decline of civilizations, on the basis of their discoveries in various fields of knowledge. Herder, who thought of himself as one of the greatest innovators of eighteenth-century historiography, especially due to his <em>Ideen</em> (1784-1791), reflected on how to overcome the missing link between the reconstruction of sacred history and the profane history of ancient civilizations as well as on how to highlight the cultural achievements of different peoples. In the late 1760s, he envisaged a solution simultaneously developed by historian Johann Christoph Gatterer, thus inaugurating a genealogical method designed for the study of the past. Just like Gatterer, Herder criticized the systematic setup of J.J. Winckelmann’s <em>Geschichte der Kunst des Althertums</em> (1764), taking – as argued here – Antoine-Yves Goguet’s <em>De l’origine des loix, des arts, et des sciences; et de leurs progrès chez les anciens peuples</em> (1758) as his model. Within a few years, Goguet’s work was translated across Europe. Winckelmann certainly knew this work, but did not explicitly mention it for reasons of methodological convenience, since Goguet considered – among other things – the role of the Greeks in the ancient world to be overestimated.</p> Elena Agazzi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-08 2020-07-08 10.4081/let.2019.669 IDEOLOGIA, UTOPIA E CRISI DELLA POLITICA http://www.ilasl.org/index.php/Lettere/article/view/668 <p>Political parties inspired by the values of liberalism, democracy and socialism no longer appear to be capable of conceiving long-term projects for their fellow citizens and humanity. After the fall of the Berlin Wall, large and small powers entered into a sordid struggle for world supremacy, sparking both local and global conflicts, and heralding the return of nationalism as a dominant ideology. This essay sets out to demonstrate that the posited “end of ideology” is groundless: traditional ideologies are unable to envisage a future of progress because they passively submit to the ideology of the absolute sovereignty of states and the just war to defend national interests. The&nbsp;future of humanity is threatened by a new arms race – regarding both nuclear and conventional weapons - to which governments are dedicating vast amounts of money; money which should actually be invested in saving the planet from global warming and the sixth extinction of animal species now under way. The path taken by the people of Europe, with the construction of the first supranational Union in history, should be a source of inspiration for formulating the policies necessary to construct a world order based on peaceful cooperation between states and to ensure that all citizens of the world enjoy the same rights of freedom and solidarity that, albeit imperfectly, have been achieved in Europe. Human progress is a utopia that can become a reality.</p> Guido Montani ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-08 2020-07-08 10.4081/let.2019.668 L’ATTUALITÀ DELLE SCELTE ISTITUZIONALI, FINANZIARIE E DI POLITICHE DELLE COMUNITÀ EUROPEE PRIMA DEI TRATTATI DI ROMA http://www.ilasl.org/index.php/Lettere/article/view/681 <p>Les traités de Paris instituant la CECA et la CED, ainsi que le projet de statut de la Communauté politique européenne, qui sont antérieurs aux traités de Rome et ne sont pas actuellement en vigueur, constituent la source la plus importante du dispositif institutionnel de l’Union européenne actuelle et méritent donc d’être étudiés à nouveau, y compris en vue de la poursuite de la réforme de l’UE. Il en va de même pour le droit dérivé et les politiques qui en sont issues, principalement la politique industrielle, et la protection des travailleurs et de l’environnement incluses dans le traité CECA. À cet égard, il convient d’accorder une attention particulière aux Mémoires de Jean Monnet.</p> Jacques Ziller ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-15 2020-07-15 10.4081/let.2019.681 ALL’INDOMANI DEI PATTI LATERANENSI (1929) – LE REAZIONI DEI CATTOLICI ITALIANI http://www.ilasl.org/index.php/Lettere/article/view/686 <p>After an overview of the Italian Catholics expectations towards the solution of the <em>Questione Romana</em>, this study carries out a review of the reactions to the signing of the <em>Patti Lateranensi</em> from the clergy and laity. We will see the endorsements of many, who saw in the event the end of years of contrasts between Church and State, both the achievement of an agreement with the fascist regime. At the same time, not the reservations and disappointments were lacking, even though they were minority of exponents of the dissolved <em>Partito Popolare</em>, which saw in those arrangements an undue support to the political establishment; others predicted changes in the programs of the&nbsp;Catholic organizations, directing them to form culturally and spiritually especially the élite members of the laity. After Mussolini’s speeches in the <em>Camera dei deputati</em> and in the <em>Senato</em>, on the procedures for the ratification of the <em>Patti</em>, the claim of the State’s superiority over the Church were viewed with concern. The tensions were loosened, inaugurating a consensus cooperation, but not free of momentary friction. However, the regime’s attempt to configure its own religion had to fade away in the face of the persistence of convictions and long-established cultic practices.</p> Annibale Zambarbieri ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-20 2020-07-20 10.4081/let.2019.686 Commemorazioni – PROFILO DI MARIO VEGETTI http://www.ilasl.org/index.php/Lettere/article/view/676 <p>Mario Vegetti (1937-2018) was one of the most important and influential historians of ancient thought. He renewed this discipline by embracing areas that were once marginal, such as medicine, biology, zoology, and by inytroducing innovative methods, such as anthropology, sociology, historical epistemology. Vegetti inaugurated the studies of the history of medicine, with the translation and the commentaries of the works of Hippocrates and Galen. In collaboration with Diego Lanza he investigated the processes that gave rise to the “ideology of the city”. He has long dealt with the ethical and moral thought of ancient philosophers (espec. Aristotle and the Stoics). In the last decades his interests have focused on Plato's ethical and political thought, of which he has provided an innovative and very stimulating interpretation.</p> Franco Ferrari ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-13 2020-07-13 10.4081/let.2019.676