Istituto Lombardo - Accademia di Scienze e Lettere - Rendiconti di Scienze http://www.ilasl.org/index.php/Scienze Rendiconti di Scienze PAGEPress Scientific Publications, Pavia, Italy it-IT Istituto Lombardo - Accademia di Scienze e Lettere - Rendiconti di Scienze 1974-6989 TUMOR TARGETING WITH INTEGRIN LIGAND - DRUG CONJUGATES http://www.ilasl.org/index.php/Scienze/article/view/651 <p>Non disponibile.</p> Cesare Gennari ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-06-26 2020-06-26 10.4081/scie.2018.651 LA GESTIONE DEL CICLO DELLE ACQUE TRA STORIA, SCIENZA E LETTERATURA http://www.ilasl.org/index.php/Scienze/article/view/666 <p>This lecture aims to present an <em>excursus</em> on the theme of the relationship between water and man and the management of water between history, literature and science, from the development of the first civilizations to the most recent consequences of human activities on aquatic ecosystems, showing the most recent solutions proposed for modern management of the water cycle also in light of the global change underway.</p> Stefano Polesello ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-06 2020-07-06 10.4081/scie.2018.666 GRAVITATIONAL WAVES, 100 YEARS LATER http://www.ilasl.org/index.php/Scienze/article/view/652 <p>We present a short communication on the recent directmeasurements of gravitational waves, made possible by the joint eorts of the LIGO and the Virgo projects. These notes are devoted to a broad audience. In the rst part we will present the basic ideas of the theory of relativity, leading to the prediction of the existence of gravitational waves. The second part is devoted to present the main results and consequences of the discovery.</p> Sergio Luigi Cacciatori ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-06-26 2020-06-26 10.4081/scie.2018.652 MATERIALI CON BAGNABILITÀ CONTROLLATA. UN’ISPIRAZIONE DALLA NATURA http://www.ilasl.org/index.php/Scienze/article/view/653 <p>The wettability of solid surfaces is the result of the balance between adhesive and cohesive forces. When adhesive forces at the solid/liquid interface prevail over the cohesive forces in the liquid, the drops will spread over the solid leading to a good wetting as in the case of water over an hydrophilic surface. When instead the adhesive forces are weak, the liquid will not wet the surface remaining in droplets, as water on a polymer. Natural materials exhibit tailored wetting behavior: for instance, certain leaves and insects present superhydrophobic properties. By mimicking what nature creates in an exemplary way, the wetting properties of systems can be tailored experimentally to obtain materials with great applicative impact. The possible applications of such phenomena are very numerous and span from biomaterials to antistain materials, from antifog surfaces to systems for the protection of cultural heritage.</p> Silvia Ardizzone Daniela Meroni ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-06-26 2020-06-26 10.4081/scie.2018.653 AROMI NATURALI: LEGISLAZIONE E SINTESI http://www.ilasl.org/index.php/Scienze/article/view/654 <p>This report describes the legal regulations concerning flavour production, classification and marketing. The effect that the legislation itself has brought in the development of new methods of synthesis of natural flavors is described in detail.</p> Stefano Serra ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-06-26 2020-06-26 10.4081/scie.2018.654 STEPHEN HAWKING: SPACE, TIME AND QUANTA http://www.ilasl.org/index.php/Scienze/article/view/655 <p>A brief introduction to the scientic work of Stephen Hawking and to his contributions to our understanding of the interplay between general relativity and quantum theory.</p> Mauro Carfora ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-06-26 2020-06-26 10.4081/scie.2018.655 CAMBIAMENTI CLIMATICI: EVIDENZE SCIENTIFICHE, RISCHI ED OPPORTUNITÀ DI MITIGAZIONE http://www.ilasl.org/index.php/Scienze/article/view/656 <p>This contribution presents the various pieces of evidence which bring the scientific community to conclude that global warming is happening and it is mostly due to anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases, mainly carbon dioxide and methane, deriving from the use of fossil fuels and some intensive agricultural practices. The main climatic changes associated with global warming are then discussed, along with the main model-derived future climate scenarios and the impacts that climate change can have on different socioeconomic sectors. Finally, the response policies to global warming are described, and in particular the concepts of adaptation and mitigaziotn (reduction of greenhouse gas emissions).</p> Filippo Giorgi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-06-26 2020-06-26 10.4081/scie.2018.656 VERS UNE MEILLEURE COMPRÉHENSION DES PREMIÈRES IDÉES SCIENTIFIQUES D’ALBERT EINSTEIN – SON ENVIRONNEMENT SCIENTIFIQUE EN ITALIE (1895-1902) http://www.ilasl.org/index.php/Scienze/article/view/663 <p>L’«année miraculeuse» d’Einstein (1905), qui le voit publier en l’espace de quelques mois quatre articles et une thèse ayant marqué la physique de son temps, apparaît bien éloignée des années durant lesquelles, jeune étudiant à l’ETH de Zurich (1896-1900) puis en thèse (1901-1902), il revenait régulièrement dans sa famille à Milan. Albert Einstein s’étant très peu exprimé sur ses questionnements et ses positionnements scientifiques dans cette période, nous les analysons en détail à partir du contenu des lettres qu’il écrit à sa future femme Mileva Mari<strong>ć</strong>. Nous nous appuyons pour cela sur une étude antérieure portant sur son environnement scientifique à Milan publiée dans ces mêmes <em>Rendiconti di Scienze</em>. La lecture à la bibliothèque de l’<em>Institut lombard</em> du <em>Festschrift</em> pour Lorentz a joué un rôle important dans ses réflexions au printemps 1901, lorsqu’il est à Milan en compagnie de son ami Michele Besso. Nous discutons en particulier comment un article de Max Reinganum l’a mené sur une «<em>fausse piste</em>» le conduisant au retrait début 1902 d’une première thèse, dont celle de 1905 allait prendre le contrepied. Toujours dans le <em>Festschrift</em>, l’article de Henri Poincaré auquel Einstein fera référence en 1906, a de son côté probablement contribué à sa prise de conscience que le temps local introduit par Hendrik Antoon Lorentz est un vrai temps; il a pu aussi, chose surprenante, participer à une première image de quanta différente de celle de Max Planck. Quant au passage étonnant par la physique statistique (1902-1904), qui allait conduire Albert Einstein en 1904 avec Michele Besso à renouer avec les quanta, nous montrerons qu’il a été déterminé par une lecture passionnée mais incomplète de Ludwig Boltzmann (1899-1901). Finalement, la période antérieure à 1905, en partie à Milan, se révèle être une période riche scientifiquement, qui a permis au jeune étudiant Albert de devenir le savant Einstein que l’on connaît.</p> Christian Bracco Jean-Pierre Provost ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-06-29 2020-06-29 10.4081/scie.2018.663 ITALIAN GEOLOGY AND CLIMATE CHANGE IN THE DEEP PAST http://www.ilasl.org/index.php/Scienze/article/view/657 <p>Mesozoic sedimentary rocks, of both deep- and shallow-water character, are present throughout Italy and well exposed in mountains and river valleys. Detailed studies of these sections by Italian geologists, beginning in the nineteenth century and continuing to this day, have produced a high-resolution biostratigraphy that allows identification of increments of geological time of less than a million years. Early work relied largely on ammonites to define biostratigraphy but was applicable primarily to sediments of Jurassic age. Study of deep-marine pelagic limestones and shales of Cretaceous age were subsequently, in the twentieth century, investigated using planktonic microfossils, the size of a sand grain, and even smaller nannofossils of micron scale. Pioneering work on magnetostratigraphy and cyclostratigraphy, undertaken primarily on Cretaceous sediments cropping out in Marche-Umbria, added further refinement to the measuring of small intervals of time in rock. With this stratigraphic background, distinct lithological and chemical signals, discovered first in Italian sequences, could be recognized world-wide and proven to be of global significance. In particular, the involvement of carbon isotopes has underscored the utility of chemostratigraphy, not only as a further aid to correlation, but also as a testimonial to major environmental change. Most significant in this context are the Cretaceous oceanic anoxic events, whose sedimentary record was first documented from Italy. These events were characterized by the development of organic-rich black shales deposited in waters largely lacking in oxygen during times of extraordinarily high temperatures known as hyperthermals. Hyperthermals, likely driven by supply of carbon dioxide from large-scale volcanic eruptions, illustrate the environmental impact on a planet affected by extreme global warming.</p> Hugh C. Jenkyns ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-06-26 2020-06-26 10.4081/scie.2018.657 L’IMPATTO DEI CAMBIAMENTI CLIMATICI SULLA CRESCITA ECONOMICA E LA DISUGUAGLIANZA GLOBALE http://www.ilasl.org/index.php/Scienze/article/view/658 <p>Climate change will impact economic growth and exacerbate global income inequalities. By hitting the poorest more, both in Italy, Europe and worldwide, it poses a challenge for the international order. Here we discuss the latest analysis of the economic impacts of climate change.</p> Massimo Tavoni ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-06-26 2020-06-26 10.4081/scie.2018.658 LOCOMOZIONE UMANA E ANIMALE A DIFFERENTI GRAVITÀ: ADATTAMENTI BIOMECCANICI ED EFFETTI METABOLICI http://www.ilasl.org/index.php/Scienze/article/view/659 <p>A few years before Apollo Missions to Moon, locomotion physiologists promoted research and discussion about the potential adaptation of human body, the musculo-skeletal apparatus in particular, to an environment subject to a much smaller gravity acceleration than on Earth. Rodolfo Margaria and Giovanni Cavagna, who had just started investigating the fundamental mechanical paradigms of terrestrial locomotion, built a gravity-emulation facility in a 15 m tall vent shaft in Milano to study how jumping ability was affected by low-gravity. The combined knowledge led them to correctly predict that humans on the Moon would have walked at a very low pace and the alternative to an impaired running would have been a bouncing gait like hopping. Since then, other scientists around the world kept on researching on this subject, both experimentally and through mathematical models. Models based on ‘dynamic similarity’ (Froude Number) have confirmed that spontaneous locomotion adopted by astronauts was predictable. Recent biomechanical and metabolic experiments in the rebuilt emulation facility in Milano indicated that gaits with very different economy on Earth (running, skipping and hopping range from 2x to 10x, when compared to walking) progressively tend to have the same cost of transport when gravity decreases, and they are all alike at Moon gravity. This suggests that the energy devoted to sustain body weight represents a crucial determinant in the propulsion economy. Together with further biomechanical analysis, these data from emulated outer space are promising clues toward a better understanding of still unsolved mysteries of terrestrial locomotion (as the speed independence of metabolic cost of running).</p> Alberto Enrico Minetti ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-06-26 2020-06-26 10.4081/scie.2018.659 MARIA GAETANA AGNESI, <em>ENFANT PRODIGE</em>, MATEMATICA, PIA NOBILDONNA http://www.ilasl.org/index.php/Scienze/article/view/665 <p>Maria Gaetana Agnesi (1718-1799) was a prominent figure in eighteenth-century Milan. A child prodigy, and an attraction in the scientific and philosophical disputes organized in the paternal home, she was the first woman to publish a mathematical treatise, the <em>Instituzioni analitiche ad uso della gioventù italiana</em> (1748), a clear and systematic presentation of both Cartesian geometry and infinitesimal analysis. Among the curves studied in that work is the <em>versiera</em>, (<em>witch</em>) the cubic curve that is still associated with her name. Appointed by Pope Benedict XIV in 1750 on the chair of mathematics at the University of Bologna, she did not accept that assignment. After her father’s death in 1752, she left mathematics to devote herself entirely to pious works, and to taking care of poor and infirm women in the Pio Albergo Trivulzio, where she spent the last fifteen years of life.</p> Umberto Bottazzini ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-03 2020-07-03 10.4081/scie.2018.665 ADVANCED DIFFERENTIAL INTERFEROMETRIC SAR TECHNIQUE A-DINSAR FOR THE STUDY OF LARGE LANDSLIDES http://www.ilasl.org/index.php/Scienze/article/view/667 <p>Large landslides are widespread both in the Alps and in Apennines; the observed movements are generally from extremely slow to slow with some occasional acceleration; the sudden and paroxysmal collapse of the whole mass may have catastrophic consequences. They are also difficult to characterize in their boundaries and state of activity and to monitor with traditional tools. The Advanced Differential interferometric SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) technique, A-DInSAR, is a remote sensing technique, which is based on satellite radar imagery for the ground motion measurement. It is based on large stacks of SAR images and enables the measure of small displacement of the&nbsp;ground with a millimetThe aim of this study is to apply the A-DInSAR technique in some large landslide in Alps (Brenvetto, Rosone and Alpe Baranca landslides) in order to study the effectiveness of the technique in their study and monitoring.</p> Claudia Meisina ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-06 2020-07-06 10.4081/scie.2018.667 Giornata d'Alembert – D’ALEMBERT EDITORE E “PHILOSOPHE” http://www.ilasl.org/index.php/Scienze/article/view/660 <p>On November 16, 1717 on the steps of Saint Jean-Baptiste le Rond de Paris, a newborn was found, and he was given the name of the discovery place. He was placed with a poor craftsman family until he was an adult. Out of this poor origin grew up a man of strong intellectual force and social distinction. At the age of twelve he was admitted the Mazzarino College, then placed in the La Coupole building, which from 1805 hosts, in quai Conti, the Institute de France together with his ve academies. In the Mazzarino College the joung man gave himself the pseudonym of D’Alembert, got the Baccalaureat when he was eighteen, and became attorney at the age of 24. He was attracted from scientic disciplines and in particular from mathematics, in which he showed an exceptional attitude. Very soon he published works of such an interest to be admitted to the Acad´emie des Sciences when he was 24. In few years he published four works of mechanics: (SOLID, FLUID, CELESTIAL). In 1758 he published the TRAITE´ DE DYNAMIQUE which can be considered a landmark of scientic culture of the XVIII century. In 1751 the rst volume of the monumental E´NCYCLOPE´DIE appeared; he was co-editor with DIDEROT. The Kings: LUIGI XV DI FRANCIA, FEDERICO II DI PRUSSIA, CATERINA II DI RUSSIA have been the main sponsors of D’Alembert, together with other “Philosophes”. They were absolute monarchs, who maybe did not agree with the ideas of Enlightenment, but were forced by the public opinion to show respect in their regards.</p> Giannantonio Sacchi Landriani ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-06-26 2020-06-26 10.4081/scie.2018.660 Giornata d'Alembert – D’ALEMBERT FISICO E MATEMATICO http://www.ilasl.org/index.php/Scienze/article/view/661 <p>Some mathematical treatises of d’Alembert are presented in in synthetic form. Particular attention is paid to the <em>Traité de dynamique</em>, namely the part concerning the principles on which Mechanics is founded. This includes the formulation of the method later entered introduced in treatises on Mechanics under the name <em>D’Alembert’s Principle</em>. Then some applications to problems in Astronomy are discussed. The content of the note has been presented in a talk given at the Istituto Lombardo Accademia di Scienze e Lettere, in the context of a conference dedicated to the works of D’Alembert owned by the Library.</p> Antonio Giorgilli ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-06-26 2020-06-26 10.4081/scie.2018.661